“Allahumma tawwi umurana fi ta’atika wa ta’ati rasulika waj’alna min ibadikas salihina”



created by mahasiswa ITP-FTP UB


Leadership is an important part of a nation and civailian. Leadership is an strategic position because leadership is same with our head in our body, if our head are sick, so the others part of our body are not in good condition, and reversely when our head is healthy, our body wiil be. In the hand of leader there are many crucial decision for our nation will made, our nation as the body are depend on the head.

Leadership problem that our nation faced it caused by the wrong style of a leader that developed on the  public environment, and proccess for produce a leader are not support to produce a good leader on this nation. Long time crysis and undone problem that happend in Indonesia revive us that, we are need a new model of leadership because if we still use the old style of leadership, it caused our country brought to the lowest places below the others nation and it will be destroy our country too. This national leadership now is on the lowest places along the history of Indonesia, while this country is declare his nationality around 63 years ago and we have changed our leader many times, our country are still on the bad situation and the problem that indonesia has are so complicated.


Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill level. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types:

1. Great Man Theories :


  • Leaders are born and not made.
  • Great leaders will arise when there is a great need.


Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding.

The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic. This was easy to verify, by pointing to people such as Eisenhower and Churchill, let alone those further back along the timeline, even to Jesus, Moses, Mohammed and the Buddah.

2. Trait Theories :


  • People are born with inherited traits.
  • Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
  • People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.


Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders.

3. Contingency Theories :


The leader’s ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader’s preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors.


Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contend that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others.

An effect of this is that leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change.

This helps to explain how some leaders who seem for a while to have the ‘Midas touch’ suddenly appear to go off the boil and make very unsuccessful decisions.

Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.

4. Situational Theories :


The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors.


When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactional or transformational methods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple.

Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior.

The leaders’ perception of the follower and the situation will affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation. The leader’s perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders’ behavior.

Leaders here work on such factors as external relationships, acquisition of resources, managing demands on the group and managing the structures and culture of the group.

5. Behavioral Theories :


  • Leaders can be made, rather than are born.
  • Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.


Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.

If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral ‘traits’ or ‘capabilities’.

6. Participative Theories :


  • Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions.
  • People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making.
  • People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.
  • When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision.
  • Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone.


A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers’ whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team. The question of how much influence others are given thus may vary on the manager’s preferences and beliefs, and a whole spectrum of participation is possible

7. Management Theories : Also known as “ Transactional Theories”


  • People are motivated by reward and punishment.
  • Social systems work best with a clear chain of command.
  • When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager.
  • The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.


The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place.

The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinate’s manager) gets authority over the subordinate.

When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).

The transactional leader often uses management by exception, working on the principle that if something is operating to defined (and hence expected) performance then it does not need attention. Exceptions to expectation require praise and reward for exceeding expectation, whilst some kind of corrective action is applied for performance below expectation.

Whereas Transformational Leadership has more of a ‘selling’ style, Transactional Leadership, once the contract is in place, takes a ‘telling’ style.

8. Relationship Theories : Also known as “Transformational Theories”


  • People will follow a person who inspires them.
  • A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
  • The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.


Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed. Relationship theories focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. These leaders often have high ethical and moral standards.


The ideal leader for indonesia it must be comply with many individual prime aspect.These are characteristic of good individuality for our leader that suitable for lead our nation :

1.  The leader should has integrity,be honest, and be dare so he can challange his enemies in front of his people and it can attract other people to support him.

2.  The leader should be care to the people, and give them many support like mores or things for stressed people in the country.

3.  The leader must be do all of his job as a leader, give a respect for people, and must served the people, not be served by the people.

According to the characteristic of a good leader, its very difficult to find the leader like that, so we must be honestly to waiting for the ideal leader to lead our nation.


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